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This website "Cambodian Law" is a small contribution of the access to laws and regulations of Cambodia and hope it can help interested people getting more understanding of the existing laws and regulations, including policy and strategy of the government of Cambodia. most of the information is refer to the link of other website. I would like to sincerely thank for all valuable website where i linked to for allow me to do so for Cambodian people and other interested people.

Tuesday, December 11, 2007

Mundulkiri province


I went to Mundulkiri province to organize a dessemination seminar on legal and judicial reform strategy of the Royal Government of Cambodia where is the priority of the governemnt i nthe reform policy among other reform strategies.

It was an amazing landscape along the road to the province where there are a lot of ethnic minority live like Pnong, Chray, Tompoun and so on. Closed to the province town we can see a very beautiful landscape and hills with a beautiful grass in the summer time. It remind me to remember the place where i used to stay more than one year in Germany. I feel the same place where i used to stay during my study for master degree there.

Even the weather is very much the same with the weather in Germany or we can say in Europe. the temperature there is around 14 c in the morning and 10 c at night. It is a beautiful place where i can't say more than words.

Monday, November 5, 2007

Model Court Consultative meeting




Today, my office, project management unit for legal and judicial reform discussed on the model court system in Cambodia which is supported by DANIDA and AUaids. the meeting was organizing and working smoothly but there are many discussion during the meeting where there are many issues has been discussed. however the result of the meeting is not so fruitful since the the objective of the meeting was not identify clearly from the begining. please see the two important legal framework for the model court in Cambodia: Criminal Procedure Code and Civil Procedure Code.





The framework for the analysis of the model court for Cambodia is starting from analyzing the background of the existing standard and criterias where the Cambodian judicial system hadve and to find out what are the international standard that Cambodian judicial system want to apply for the judicial system in Cambodia. Then the criteria which was inshrined from




Cambodian legal framework will be used as a concept of criteria to fullfil the 11 standards of the model court in order to reach the 10 objectves of the model court and finally to meet the goal of Model court system in Cambodia. When the criteria has been analyzed completedly the question to be asked will used to find out what are the actions need to fullfil the 3 mechanisms of court system (case management, court management, and court administration). Finally the strategy and action plan for the model court will be developed in order to implement the project.



Thursday, November 1, 2007

Important book


yesterday i red one article concerning to the personnal building with a title "personnal mitivation". i feel that it is a very good book where it can make us to be a success person if we can follow all instruction from the book. i can noticed that the whole book is said about how to motivate ourself by which it seem like to follow the logical framework of planning in which it is starting from setting the vision and goal in the first thing, the second thing is to formulate the strategy on how to reacht he goal or vision, then sent up what are the actions should be implemented to get the strategy successful.

i feel that is it a very good book that should be red by all. it can be help us to be more confident and more strong to reach the dream where all of us want. i recomment that all of us should read this book and if you can follow some principles of the book it can make you all successful in your life.

Monday, October 29, 2007


today my office start lauching a new internet connection with 254 mhp speed. it is a very great for my office to have an opportunity to access internet in order to get more news updated information and new technology for improving the working performance. As PMU is a core strategic office to coordinate and facilitate working conditions with both development partner and government agencies for fostering the legal and judicial reform, it is more important for all staffs in the pmu office to make more effective and efficient communication with all stakeholders. Internet access is a core tool for pmu to make effective and effiecient coordination and cooperation with implementing agencies in monitoring and coordinating all reform activities which developed in the sevent strategic objective framework of the legal and judicial reform strategy which is a second priority policy framework of the royal government of Cambodia in the rectangular strategy of the third mandate legislative.


The tool, hopefuly, will help pmu staffs to reach the goal of effective and efficient coordination and monitoring the reform activities implemented by both government agencies and development partners, including NGOs and civil society in Cambodia. So far among the seven strategies of the legal and judicial reform framework have been implemented by government agencies and development partner through NGOs and other civil society organizations.

Friday, September 28, 2007

wedding of my relative

last week, i went to joint my relative wedding in Koh Thom District, Prek Sdey commune, Kandal province. it was so happy to be there since a bit long time for me to go there after more than one year staying abroad. i met many relatives and it made me so exited to be with them. when i reach there they finish having lunch already so i just sit down and talked with my relatives to know their living situation and others matters.

all of my relative were so welcomed and made me so happy. some they looked at me and ask me something on my working conditions and the living situation in Germany where i stayed for more than one year. i just tell them the situation in the western style and it was not so good than our country. mostly i wished to stay in Cambodia more than in other country. if we just stay for short time period it is ok for me.

i knew that the living situation in other country is not so easy as we stay in our country with our friends and family and other supporting system.

Friday, September 21, 2007

ice cream with sticky rice

last weekend, i just went out to PRASAT pagoda where is locate in western of phnom penh city with my friends who are my neighbors. along the road to the place is so beautiful with green landscape and water since this season is raining season. i feel it is relax to be here especially along the road where i went like in the middle of the water.

on the way to the place i saw a small businessman who sold an ice cream with his motor. normally we call it "CAREM KEY BAY DOMNEUP" (ice cream with sticky rice). it so delicious. i think if you test it you can enjoy it so much with their local test. i just asked him where he come from, he said he came from Koh Thom district in Kandal province where it is my natal village too. we stopped there to have ice cream with sticky rice because we did not get something for our breakfast te!!! he hahahaha!!!


don't forget to test na otherwise you never know the local test of ice cream made in Cambodia te!!!!!

Wednesday, September 19, 2007

Like is easy


life is so short so we should think about how to manage our life be better and happy. mostly i like the normal life living like a normal people in the country side however as today is a technology era i think life should be more than normal like to do a simple things but we need to integrate the classic style and modern style together. most of the time, in particular, on weekend i used to go out the city and have a fresh air with my friends. it is my style to have a good feeling with nature in the countryside.

this weekend i just went to Tamao mountain with my friends around 10 people. i feel so good to be with them but one thing that i don't like is that they just drive a car so fast in order to reach the place without taking relax along the road to take some fresh air and see the beautiful landscape with green field of rice and palm tree along the road to the place. mostly i like to drive slowly and stop some place to have a local food and chat with local people to make happy and get fresh air. i like to get a normal local food like CHEK CHEOUN (banana fried) or fried frog and so on. it is a normal life of the local people where i would like to see the living style of them. actually i got some picture on my phone i will post it and i think you all like this like me too.

life is easy if we think that it is easy!!!!!!!
don't forget to have a good life na! oz life is so short. i feeel that we should do something is good for ourself and also for the society too, then the young generation will recognize us that we did well. at least we have something good for the next generation. hopefuly our friends will try to do a good thing for the society.

Thursday, August 9, 2007

Freedom of Information in Cambodia: Problems and Challenges

Freedom of Information in Cambodia:
Problems and Challenges

By khlok dara
Head of human rights and arbitration project
Project Management Unit (PMU)
Council for Legal and Judicial Reform


Abstract

This study will discuss on what is the freedom of information and a brief history of the in the international framework and in the context of Cambodian legal framework. In this first chapter the study will focus on the issues happened concerning to the freedom of information in the society and politic of Cambodia. In the study of these problems of the freedom of information in the context of Cambodia, We will discuss and brief analyze the effect of the problems what are the cause of the freedom of information in the Cambodian society especially in the public institution. At the end of the study, this research will see the way forward of the Royal Government of Cambodia in performing their obligation to ensure the freedom of information in order to combating the corruption and setting up the principle of transparency, accountability, responsibility, democracy, and human rights protection according to the legal and judicial reform strategy. Along with this, the study will also focus on the challenges in the future in promoting and strengthening the protection of freedom of information by briefing the forming of Working Group on freedom of information of NGOs and civil society in advocating and lobbying government to draft the law on freedom of information.


I- Introduction

In general, both of human being and animal need the food for feed. Therefore food is very important for all both human being and animals for survival, but human being need another one beside the animals. It is the information happened around the body and inside and outside the community. The information is very important for human being to know and understand the social and development information.

In the democratic country, the human rights have to be respected according to the Universal declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations[1]in which there are some fundamental rights and freedom such as freedom of expression, freedom of association, freedom of opinion, freedom of information, and so on.

It is very important to study on this topic on the freedom of information in the time because right now the freedom of information in Cambodia is a hot challenge of the non-governmental organizations and civil society to advocate the Royal Government of Cambodia to take an attention in reconsider to draft the law on the freedom of information in order to fight against the corruption which is the big problem of Cambodia to reach the goal of good governance, transparency, accountability and responsibility of the government state reform strategy. This study could be a small contribution for other researchers to deepen the freedom of information or in related field. And also it could be a beginning point for both government and civil society to see the problems and challenges for reforming laws and judiciary especially the freedom of information that is very most fundamental rights of the people.

In the chapter following we will study on the legal framework of the freedom of information and then discuss on the political and social problems. In the next chapter, we also discuss on the challenges of the Royal Government of Cambodia and non-governmental organizations and civil society in creating the law/regulation of freedom of information and we also study the way forward of government position and NGOs and civil society in reforming the legal and judicial reform in order to get the freedom to access to both private and public information.

II- freedom of information and Legal Framework
Freedom of information is a fundamental right. A freedom of information law provides citizens a legally enforceable right to access information regarding matters of public concern held by governments, public authorities, and in some cases private bodies and companies.
1- Freedom of Information and International Law
Freedom of information was recognized by the world nations in the article 19 of the Universal declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations [2]" Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers".
Furthermore, The United Nations stipulated again in the important international norms of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) in the article 19. This article said: [3] " (1) Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference, (2) Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice, (3) The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article carries with it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary: (a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others; (b) For the protection of national security or of public order (order public), or of public health or morals".
According to the fundamental rights and freedom of all citizens in this Declaration and according to the nation member of the United Nations, countries throughout the world, including in Asia, are passing freedom of information laws in order to encourage government accountability to citizens, combat official secrecy, promote democratic principles and fight corruption. On a global scale, government, private, civil society and media stakeholders are joining together to advance the common goal of facilitating access to information that is in the public interest[4].
Furthermore, Article 13 of the International Treaty on Fighting against Corruption stated that: Each State party shall undertake measures to promote participation of actives individuals, civil society group and NGOs in fighting against corruption. These measures includes: the promotion of transparency, public participation in decision making, procedures to provide public with effective access to information, public access to information for the purpose of abolishing corruption, and the promotion of publications against corruption[5].
2- Cambodian Legal Framework
After the free and fair election sponsored by the United Nation Transitional Authority in Cambodia in 1993, the Kingdom of Cambodia is a democratic country. To complete the principle of democracy and human rights protection, Cambodia clearly defined in their constitution the protection and respect of human rights and freedom according to the international standard. The chapter III of the constitution of the second kingdom of Cambodia[6] defined clearly the individual rights and freedom and the duties of the people especially in the article 31 of the chapter III recognized the international covenant, treaty, universal declaration of human rights, and so on. The Article 31 said[7]-
The Kingdom of Cambodia shall recognize and respect human rights as stipulated in the United Nations Charter, the Universal Declaration of human Rights, the covenants and conventions related to human rights, women's and children's rights.
Every Khmer citizen shall be equal before the law, enjoying the same rights, freedom and fulfilling the same obligations regardless of race, color, sex, language, religious belief, political tendency, birth origin, social status, wealth or other status.
The exercise of personal rights and freedom by any individual shall not adversely affect the rights and freedom of others. The exercise of such rights and freedom shall be in accordance with law.
According to the strong commitment of the Royal Government of Cambodia and because of the kingdom of Cambodia is a state party in the Universal Declaration of Human rights (UDHR) and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) in 1992, the new constitution of the second kingdom said clearly in the article 41 that " Khmer citizens shall have freedom of expression, press, publication and assembly. No one shall exercise this right to infringe upon the rights of others, to affect the good traditions of the society, to violate public law and order and national security. The regime of the media shall be determined by law"[8].
Furthermore, some of the freedom was also recognized in the Law on the Regime of Press adopted on September 1, 1995 in the first mandate of the national parliament. In the Law on the Regime of the Press, Article 15 said[9]:
“A. Generally
The Press has rights of access to information in government held records, except for any information that causes:
Harm to national security;
Harm to relations with other countries;
Invasion of the privacy rights of individuals, including personal files of officials, medical files, and confidential official files and materials;
Expose trade secrets, confidential financial information obtained from any individual or legal entity, and information related to the regulation and supervision of financial institutions;
Affect the rights of any person to a fair trial;
Danger to public officials carrying out the law or their duties.
B. Request for Information
Requests for information shall be made in writing and specify clearly of the information which is requested to the institutions.
Competent official who governs such institution shall respond in writing to the request within 30 days. If the request is denied in whole or in part, reasons for such denial shall be indicated clearly in writing. “
It was said clearly about the freedom of information that allows the journalist to access to information in the public sector. It also provided the procedure of how to get the public information to facilitate for the journalist to get the information, but there are still missing articles for the journalist to know when the public documents or public records have to keep in secret. There is no mechanism to appeal for the misconduct of the government officials in receiving the information and also there are not regulations to stipulate the freedom of people to get or know the public information such as the investment contract, expenditure of national budget, public documents so on. In the chapter following, we will see the problems of the freedom to access to information.
III- Problems
Cambodia passed many political regimes. Each of the political regimes did not have the policy of openness for the public to know some thing they want to get. They do not permit the people to know the information of national management, policy even the laws or regulations of government. The situation became worst when the Cambodia fall into the Kampuchea Democratic regime from 1975 to 1979 (Pol Pot's regime)[10]. In that time they were prohibited to get the information and express even the discussion among the family because they separated all the members of the family in category (children, men, women, elders, and so on). Their policy is that “Keep high secret, keep long live". It means that every people have to keep in silence even with the member family or among the husband or wife, if not it will be killed by the Khmer Rouge.

Until now the government still prohibited most of the public information. They believe that who got more information is meaning that they get more power. Freedom of information, specifically the rights to access information, the rights to seek the information, the rights to receive and impart ideas or information held by public authorities, is a rights in itself, a fundamental element of the rights to freedom of expression. It is also necessary for the fulfillment of all other human rights. Possibly, most importantly, it is vital to the proper functioning of a democracy.

Otherwise, even the government authority recognize all the universal declaration of human rights and all international covenants and treaty or conventions on the human rights protection of the United nations, the implementation of the that rights is still in difficult for the people to know or seek the information from the public authority. According to the survey in 2002[11], of the Center of Social development on the freedom of information for monitoring the possibility to access information of judicial and public institutions and finding out the implications of the people in that rights shown that people was very difficult to seek and receive public information than from the non-governmental organizations and civil society. The survey was held in 5 cities and provinces – Phnom Penh, Kandal, Preah Sihanuk, Takeo, Kampong Cham, and Battambang. The survey also focused on the judicial officials, lawyers, journalists, persons who had case in court, private companies, and non-governmental organizations and civil society.

Since free and fair election sponsored by United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) 1993, the field of media develops very much. Today there are seven television stations, 17 radio stations and over 100 newspapers and magazines broadcasting and publishing in Cambodia according to report of the ministry of information. Furthermore today, the modern technology develop very much in Cambodia like telephone, internet, and so on, even there are a lot of means for accessing information, but Cambodian people are still very low in accessing information. According to the information from the World Source Institute Website[12] emphasized that the possibility to access information of the Cambodian people is very low comparing to the countries in Asia.

Access to information 1999-2002



Today according to the Project Management Unit report to the Council for Legal and Judicial Reform, the strategy for providing the access to legal and judicial information has been conducted as short and medium term priority for the legal and judicial reform, but there many more activities that the government have to do for improving the freedom to access information like the government have to promote the formation of law of information that said in the short term priority action to ensure all the people can access public information as well as the private and non-government al organizations and civil society information. If the government doesn't have the clear commitment to do this, the law on freedom of information can't be formed and permit the people access freely the public as well as private and NGOs information. Furthermore, if the government only said their commitment in paper therefore especially the public authority doesn't respect the freedom of information and the people can't seek or receive public information.

2- Non-governmental Organization and Civil Society Initiative
Freedom of information is crucial a number of agendas that are part of the discussion between government and donors in Cambodia: improving the quality of governance and public sector administration, the fight against corruption and legal and judicial reform. It is linked to a number of the broader issues relating to establishing a rule of law framework in Cambodia: the separation of powers and the notion that the exercise of power should be subject to legal restraints as enshrined in the Constitution; the idea that the executive should be subjected to scrutiny from the legislature, the judiciary and the general public.

Non-governmental organizations and civil society played a very crucial role in human rights protection especially the freedom of expression and freedom of information. In 2002 the Center of Social Development conducted a survey on the freedom of information in the aim of find out the implementation of public authority and court officials in conducting the freedom of information. Furthermore, most of NGOs tried their best to complaint the government on misconduct of freedom of expression especially the freedom of information to promote the government to open all information to be available for the public.

With the cooperation with the Article 19 Organization of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are many NGOs – especially PACT- formed a Working Group on Freedom of Information to promote the protection of freedom to access to information. They formed a draft on the freedom of information and organized one workshop on freedom of information which participated from many stakeholders like NGOs, members of National Assembly, government officials, United Nations of human rights representative, donor countries, and so on. Furthermore, in term of Working Group on Freedom of Information, all members of the Working Group met regular to find out the strategy to do for advocate and lobby the government to form a law on freedom of information.

The drafting on law on freedom of information of the NGOs and civil society must have the participation of the government side and private as well. Because according to the experience of the Indonesia, there are three kinds of law drafting on freedom of information – one by NGOs and civil society, two by national assembly, and three by government[21]. Until now these law drafting are not yet adopted because it is very difficult to make a decision what kind of law drafting should take.

V- Conclusion

In Conclusion, creating a culture of openness and transparency in government as well in NGOs and civil society and private sector is crucial to Cambodia's democratic development, in establishing a society that respect human rights under the rule of law. A freedom of information is an important first step as said in the short term priority of the legal and judicial reform strategy of the Royal Government of Cambodia in the strategic objective number III, especially in promoting a presumption of access to information held by public authorities. The freedom of information was took attention from all parties concerned – government, NGOs and civil society, donor countries- and was promoted and improves from time to time since the Paris Peace Agreement in 1991. They do a lot of thing to give the access to information to the people by creating the mass media like radios, televisions, newspapers, magazines, bulletins, internet access, telephone line, and so on. Until now both government and NGOs and civil society has been worked very hard to form the law drafting on freedom of information to promote and strengthen the protection of human rights, private rights especially the freedom to access information.

However to reach that goal and the protection of private rights and freedom of information, government should do many things such as:

- Reform the bureaucracy in the work place,
- All stakeholders relevant – government, private sector, non-governmental organizations and civil society, and mass media have to joint together to advance the common goal of facilitating access to information and work together to promote and advocate the law drafting on freedom of information,
- Establish, improve, and strengthen the desk reception of each government institutions to facilitate public to seek, receive and impart public information, records, contract, and so on,
- The government must reduce the corruption in the public sector that is a key cause in violation of human rights especially the freedom of expression and information
- Establish the culture of transparency in government as well as in NGOs and civil society and private sector because to day it is very difficult for the pubic to access information in all sectors especially in the public sector. They don't want give the information to the public even the laws or regulations.
- All stakeholders relevant should establish certain processes: (1) detail of regulars on how to request information, (2) deadline for receive information, (3) mechanisms for assistance in information seeking process, and (4) rules on the requirement of written documentation in the event of refusal of information

References


Constitution of Cambodia

Law on the regime of Press of Cambodia adopted in 1995

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)

The office of the high Commissioner for Human Rights, Website: Library of Human Rights of University of Minnesolta, Website:, http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/b3ccpr.htm
PACT/Cambodia, Website: http://www.pactworld.org/programs/country/cambodia/cambodia_app_story1.htm

Website: http://www.cambodia.org/facts/constitution.html#ChapterIII

Law on the regime of press that unofficial translated by the Cambodian law website, http://www.ifrance.com/cambodialaw/

Mrs. Chea Vannath, Director of Center of Social Development, speech in the workshop on the Freedom of Information on June 23, 2004 in Sunway Hotel

This survey did not yet officially publish the repot. This information gets from the Center of Social Development.

Website: http://earthtrends.wri.org/text/environmental-governance/country-profile-31.html

Miss Saku Akmeemana, office of the high commissioner for human rights, speech in the workshop on freedom of information on June 23, 2004 in Sunway hotel in Phnom Penh in Cambodia

Draft of report of workshop on freedom of information held in Sunway hotel in Phnom Penh Cambodia on 23 June 2004, p. 7

Mr. Toby Mendel, Representative of Artic 19 Organization of Great Britain, speech in the workshop on freedom of information on June 23, 2004 in Sunway hotel in Phnom Penh in Cambodia

Semester Report of the Project Management Unit of the Council for Legal and Judicial Reform, 2005

Legal and Judicial Reform Strategy Paper of the Royal Government of Cambodia, 2003

US department of State, website: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2732.htm

Survey of Center of Social Development on Freedom of Information in 2002

[1] Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nation was adopted in 1949
[2] Website of the office of the high Commissioner for Human Rights, http://www.unhchr.ch/udhr/lang/eng.htm
[3] University of Minnesolta, Human Rights Library, http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/b3ccpr.htm

[4] Website of PACT/Cambodia, http://www.pactworld.org/programs/country/cambodia/cambodia_app_story1.htm
[5] Report of the workshop on freedom of information on 23 June 2004
[6] we called Second Kingdom of Cambodia because acoording to the history, in the 1950’s and 1960’s, Cambodia conducted the same stsyetm of parliamentary monarchy regime with the king is a head of state. It means that the king have no power to do anything. According to the constitution 1993, Cambodia respected the same regime of paliamentatry monarchy. Therefore most of politician and foreign politician called the regime in the 1960’s the first kingdom and the regime in 1993 is a second kingdom.
[7] http://www.cambodia.org/facts/constitution.html#ChapterIII
[8] http://www.cambodia.org/facts/constitution.html#ChapterIII
[9] Law on the regime of press that unofficial translated by the Cambodian law website, http://www.ifrance.com/cambodialaw/
[10] Mrs. Chea Vannath, Director of Center of Social Development, speech in the workshop on the Freedom of Information on June 23, 2004 in Sunway Hotel
[11] This survey did not yet officially publish the repot. This information gets from the Center of Social Development.
[12] Website: http://earthtrends.wri.org/text/environmental-governance/country-profile-31.html
[13] Miss Saku Akmeemana, office of the high commissioner for human rights, speech in the workshop on freedom of information on June 23, 2004 in Sunway hotel in Phnom Penh in Cambodia
[14] Draft of report of workshop on freedom of information held in Sunway hotel in Phnom Penh Cambodia on 23 June 2004, p. 7
[15] Mr. Toby Mendel, Representative of Artic 19 Organization of Great Britain, speech in the workshop on freedom of information on June 23, 2004 in Sunway hotel in Phnom Penh in Cambodia

[16] Mrs. . Chea Vannath, Director of Center of Social Development, speech in the workshop on the Freedom of Information on June 23, 2004 in Sunway Hotel
[17] Semester Report of the Project Management Unit of the Council for Legal and Judicial Reform
[18] The seven strategic objectives are (1) to strengthen the protection of individual rights and freedom, (2) modernize the legal framework, (3) Access to information of laws and judiciary, (4) Improve the quality of legal process and relevant services, (5) Strengthen judicial services, judicial power, and prosecution services, (6) Introduce to Alternative Dispute Resolution, and (7) Strengthen judicial institution to complete their mandate.
[19] New article 93 of the Constitution of Cambodia said that "Any law approved by the Assembly and signed by the King for its promulgation, shall go into effect in Phnom Penh 10 days after signing and throughout the country 20 days after its signing. Laws that are stipulated as urgent shall take effect immediately throughout the country after promulgation. All laws promulgated by the King shall be published in the Journal Official and published throughout the country in accordance with the above schedule".
[20] US department of State, website:http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2732.htm
[21] Miss Prayekti Murharjanti, experiences of freedom of information in Indonesia, workshop on freedom of information held in sunway hotel in Phnom Penh in Cambodia on 23 June 2004
Management is one word where everybody use every day but to make effective and efficient management is a very hard work to do. As we know that before we used to utilize the word "administration" instead of word "management". the word administration was defined as an old term where it means "control" from the administrator who is the superior of the office. the employees have no rights to initiate or raise some new ideas or comments concerning to the new development of the work or office to be better. Only boss has the power to order what employees should do and should not do. we can say that this word is related to the buraucracy system of management.

Monday, August 6, 2007

ការចេះទទួលកំហុស​ជាការប្រពៃណាស់

ជាកាពិតដែលមនុស្សយើងម្នាក់ៗ​ត្រូវតែទទួលស្គាល់ថា​នរណាក៏មានកំហុស​ហើយដែលត្រូវធ្វើការកែប្រែ។​បើយើងទទួលស្គាល់កំហុសរបស់យើង​មានន័យថា​យើងនៅមានមនសិការ​ការតទួលខុសត្រូវក្នុងការបំពេញការងារ​និងអ្វីដែលយើងបានប្រព្រឹត្ត។​ព្រះសមនគ្គោត្តម​ក៏បានទូម្មានយើងឲចេះទតួលកំហុសរបស់យើងដែរ​ហើយជនណាដែលទទួលកំហុសខ្លួនឯង​ពិតជាការប្រសើរណាស់​ដែលអាចក្លាយជាព្រះបាន។​

Thursday, August 2, 2007

Is it only the character of Khmer people?

it is a story said about the character of the khmer people in PhnomPenh related to the "Money is Power". you every morning i used to go to have breakfast in one restaurant where there are so many people like to have it there because of the quality of the food. i used to park my car near to the restaurant and always, there is one guide who use to guide me to park when i'm going to park and getting out from the park. most of the time i used to give some tip to him with around 500-1000 riels. you know during a few day i did not give him a tip because i don't have a small money and then when i go agian to park the guide who used to help me to park don't help me again and he stay in calm. I don't know why?$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

another story is the same in my working place. security guide will not want to take care us to help us for car parking if we don't give some tip for them. therefore i think that money is power and i don't know whether it is a good character or not. it is happen only in Cambodia or everywhere in the world. i think maybe it is the same for other country. i know that they need some sort of money but they should not think that car driver have a small money everyday giving tip them. ok! i know that the salary for them is so little bt they should act properly.

Trafic in Phnom Penh today


now you can imagine the situation of our trafic in Phnom Penh today. i hope our Phnom Penh authority will take more consideration on how to improve the trafic situation.


Friday, May 11, 2007

How to exercise during working in front of computer

Sitting at the computer all day is not exactly good for the body. If you have to be at a desk all day long, doing some simple things can improve your posture and health.

Steps
1- Sit properly in a good chair designed for desk work. Your back should be straight, and your head should be looking directly into your monitor. If you have to look down or up, you need to adjust the height of either the screen or your chair. If you keep leaning forward, first get your eyesight checked. If your eyesight is fine use a loose belt or string to tie yourself to the chair. After a while you will improve your posture and no longer need this restraint.
Maintain an ergonomic body posture while typing. Be sure your wrists are slightly lower than your elbows. This will help prevent Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Keep your legs bent at the knees so that the knees are only slightly higher than your hips. Feet should be flat on the floor or on a step stool of some sort.

2- Stand up every half hour. Walk around a few steps, stretch your calves, and give your eyes a break from focusing on your computer screen. This will also help prevent blood clots from developing in your legs. Blood clots are very common among the middle aged computer users.
Learn to stretch. To stretch your neck, flex your head forward/backward, side to side and look right and left. Never roll your head around your neck. This could cause damage to the joints of the neck.

3- Roll your wrists regularly (this will help prevent carpal tunnel syndrome if you spend a lot of time typing).

4- Recognize that people tend to hunch in front of the keyboard. To counter that, perform the following exercise: open your arms wide as if you are going to hug someone, rotate your wrists externally (thumbs going up and back) and pull your shoulders back. You will feel a stretch in the scapula area.

5- Contract your abdominal and gluteal muscles, hold them there for a few seconds, then release. Do this all day long while you are in your chair.
Stretch your arms, legs, neck and torso while sitting. This will help prevent you from feeling stiff.

6- Take advantage of the downtime created by rebooting or large file downloads to get up and try something more ambitious such as doing a few push-ups, sit-ups, and/or jumping jacks. Beware of your snickering co-workers though.
Acquire a hand gripper. They are cheap, small and light. When you have to read something either on the screen or on paper, you probably won't be using your hands very often so squeeze your gripper. It is an excellent forearm workout.

7- Acquire an elastic band (also cheap, small and light) and use it to do the actions mentioned in step 8 (i.e., when stretching your arms, do it by pulling apart the elastic band). You will not only stretch but it will also work the muscles slightly.

8- Take a few deep breaths. If possible, get some fresh air in your lungs.

9- Invest in a large size stability ball or stability ball style desk chair, and sit on it with back straight and abs firm. The actual stability ball is more effective, however the chair is a more viable option for use in an office environment. Sit, bounce or do basic toning exercises while watching TV or talking on the phone as well. Use the actual ball form in moderation when typing, as this is probably not the most supportive seating to prevent carpal tunnel and tendonitis.

10-While sitting, lift up your legs on the balls of your feet and set them down. Repeat these until your legs are comfortably tired. Then repeat it again about 10 minutes later. Do this whole routine for about an hour or so. This will exercise your calves.

Tips
Don't neglect the health of your eyes! It is detrimental to your eyesight to focus at one thing for long periods of time (i.e. your monitor) so take breaks to look out the window and focus at something at a further distance away to maintain good ocular health. Also consider purchasing an LCD screen which is easier on the eyes. Ophthalmologists recommend following the "20-20-20" rule--For every 20 minutes spent focusing on your computer screen, spend 20 seconds focusing on something else 20 feet away.

As long as something is moving, you will be helping to keep yourself in better shape. Constant movement will burn calories and contribute to cardiovascular health. While exercising at your computer is helpful, it is not a substitute for going to the gym or conducting a regular exercise program.

Don't sit still. Fidgeting is a good way to keep moving. Even something like tapping your foot. But don't make too much noise--however you fidget, the repetitive noises may bother other people.

Always have water nearby to drink.

If you're all alone, try shutting off the computer for a bit and exercise. If you're on a cell phone call, get up and do stretches, or leg lifts, anything to keep moving during down time away from the desk.

Try exercises that combine opposing muscle groups (flexors and extensors, e.g., biceps and triceps) to get a good workout. Clasp your hands together with palms facing each other. Pull up with one hand while pushing down with the other.

If you are a runner or jogger, you can sit on the floor and stretch as you use the computer. It will save you time too if you have to do both anyway.
Play music while working to provoke body movement and relieve stress. A smaller instrument will be more convenient.

Warnings
Your body needs more exercise than just what you do at the computer, but following these steps will contribute to a healthy, balanced lifestyle.

Do not sit at your computer for a long time. Take a break every 15 minutes.

Steps 8 and 9; if not done in moderation, may cause you to start sweating, which may not be a pleasant sight or odor in an office environment. Keep in mind you are doing these to prevent stiffness, so save the enthusiasm for the gym.

From wikihow: http://www.wikihow.com

Tuesday, May 8, 2007

it's time to go back home

it is almost time for me to go back home after 14 months of hard study in Potsdam university in Berlin, Germany. My feeling is mixed together with happiness and sadness as first i will meet my family, friends, and colledgues in the office and second i will leave my new friends in Berlin. It is a credible thing. Time is really flying !!!!!!

i hope everything is ok after i will be in my country.

Wednesday, May 2, 2007

Paris Visit



Paris it is a nice place to visit. i went to Paris with my friend on 27 to 30 April 2007. it was a very nice trip. Even this season is sprint but it seems like a summer. the temperature is about 27oc. i visited many places in Paris. It is so beautiful and romantic especially when i took a boad trip along the Sene river at night.

Friday, March 23, 2007

Study hard and enjoy hard!!!!


It is our slogan in our schlachtensee group. we are mostly enjoy every Friday night.

P. Diddy ft. Usher...

Schlachtensee guy in Poland


In fromt of Poland Boder we are enjoying beer

On the train
Hey! come one let's enjoy !

i know everybody is very busy with the thesis however we should take some time to enjoy in Germany too. Last week our group of Schlachtensee went to Poland Border. It was a very nice place even there was raining. You can see from our smiling with beer even Emmanuel with a big bottle of local beer.

Friday, February 23, 2007

MPM/MGPP Summer Excursion 2006 – Governing Europe – September 18 through 22, 2006 Brussels, Belgium



















This is our Excursion in Brussels, Belgium during Summer time. Our Program organized an excursion to Brussels for one week in order to make students familiar with the unique supranational institution in Europe, the European Union. Participants will be provided with first-hand information about the work of diverse European institutions in Brussels, e.g. the European Commission, the Council of the EU and the European Parliament. The program will be completed by visits at representations of Brandenburg and lobby organizations. The primary focus is to equip students with a basic understanding of the machinery of European governance, as well as current discussions on European Politics, for example environmental policy.

Thursday, February 22, 2007

Winter Party

Party! Party! It is very happy!

After the exam of our second semester, our group organized a lovely party in my flat. All mpm students took part in this party. We had food and danced together. It's very happy. Everybody is smile.












Hello everybody!

Welcome to the Master of Public Management 2006-2007 (MPM) !!!

MPM is a post gratuate program sponsored by INWENT for developing country in the field of public management. The students are coming from the midcareer in the public sector in developing country. In 2006-2007, the participants in this program are coming from Cambodia, Vietnam, India, Palestine, Mongolia, Pakistan, Namibia, Rwanda, Ghana, Ethiopia, Zambia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru.